This era represents the first half of the Empire of Japan, during which period the Japanese people moved from being an isolated feudal society at risk of colonisation by Western powers to the new paradigm of a modern, industrialised nation state and emergent great power, influenced by Western scientific, technological, philosophical, political, legal, and aesthetic ideas. Perhaps most dramatically, it abolished the old system of a social hierarchy based on inherited status. in history and taught university and high school history.  Another trend in the Meiji era was for women's under-kimono made by combining pieces of different fabric, sometimes of radically different colours and designs. Another change in Meiji Japan … Hane, M. Reflections on the Way to the Gallows: Rebel Women in Prewar Japan.  Metalwork was connected to Buddhist practice, for example in the use of bronze for temple bells and incense cauldrons, so there were fewer opportunities for metalworkers once Buddhism was displaced as the state religion. This law required every able-bodied male Japanese citizen, regardless of class, to serve a mandatory term of three years with the first reserves and two additional years with the second reserves. In the decorative arts, Japanese artists reached new levels of technical sophistication.. Kido Takayoshi (1833–1877), one delegate on the Iwakura Mission, wrote to his friend Sugiyama Takatoshi in 1873 and discussed the critical role of education in the United States. The majority of these reforms were greatly influenced by the West, but they never deviated significantly from Japans cultural and historical roots. It was because of some of these new laws that helped Japan become the country that it is today. After a short battle, both sides withdrew to reconstitute their forces. Two days later, Saigō's rebels, while attempting to block a mountain pass, encountered advanced elements of the national army en route to reinforce Kumamoto castle. The result was a deliberate state led industrialisation policy to enable Japan to quickly catch up. Between 1891 and 1895, Ito served as Prime Minister with a cabinet composed mostly of genro who wanted to establish a government party to control the House of Representatives. The Meiji Constitution lasted as the fundamental law until 1947. What were the goals of the leaders of the Meiji era? It was preceded by the Keiō era and was succeeded by the Taishō era, upon the accession of Emperor Taishō. (Greenfield) In 1868, after the Meiji Restoration, the Meiji government introduced "the Great Japanese Imperial Constitution" and provided the emperor with the legal basis for an absolute power over the sovereignty of Japan. Allied with Britain since the Anglo-Japanese Alliance signed in London on January 30, 1902, Japan joined the Allies in World War I, seizing German-held territory in China and the Pacific in the process, but otherwise remained largely out of the conflict. Many believed that Meiji Japan had flourished under the steadfast rule of the emperor who reigned for more than 40 years. He documented everything, from currency systems to education and technology.  Despite this, artists such as Yabu Meizan and Makuzu Kōzan maintained the highest artistic standards while also successfully exporting. Everything you need to get started teaching your students about racism, antisemitism and prejudice. and of those persons who have been nominated thereto by the Emperor. This process of modernization was closely monitored and heavily subsidized by the Meiji government, enhancing the power of the great zaibatsu firms such as Mitsui and Mitsubishi. There were three main causes of the Meiji Restoration: First, internal problems in Japan made ruling the country too difficult. The han were replaced with prefectures in 1871, and authority continued to flow to the national government. The educational field also was a major way for adopting Western-style music. Japan’s efforts to build a modern nation considered both its history and adaptation of Western practices. They are also valuable because they influenced the ways in which Meiji and Taish period Japanese understood their own world. A few weeks later the national army engaged Saigō's rebels in a frontal assault at what now is called the Battle of Tabaruzuka. Article IV. All of these changes, however, caused tremendous upheaval for a people ruled by a warrior class for centuries. What are the skills of a great citizen?  The Emperor issued a proclamation promoting Western dress over the allegedly effeminate Japanese dress.  Also, in the same year, the hyobusho (war office) was replaced with a War Department and a Naval Department. In 1885, the Meiji government sponsored a telegraph system, throughout Japan, situating the telegraphs in all major Japanese cities at the time. By combining and finishing copper, silver and gold in different proportions, they created specialised alloys including shakudō and shibuichi. Party participation was recognized as part of the political process. The objectives of the Iwakura Mission, as it came to be known, were twofold: to hold preliminary discussions on a revision of the “unequal treaties” signed with the Western imperial powers beginning in the 1850s and to observe and study the public and private institutions of these Western powers. Indeed, the new Japanese army used the same rank structure as the French. . Saigō's army was outnumbered seven-to-one, prompting a mass surrender of many samurai.  From 1876 to 1913, Kōzan won prizes at 51 exhibitions, including the World's fair and the National Industrial Exhibition. This essay briefly describes some key events in Japan's Meiji (1868-1912) and Taish (1912-1925) periods. The Japanese Imperial Family also owns excellent works of Meiji Art, some of which were donated to the state and are now stored in the Museum of the Imperial Collections. .  The educational reforms were made by Isawa Shūji (1851-1917) and Luther Whiting Mason (1828-1896).  So Western dress became popular in the public sphere: many men adopted Western dress in the workplace, although kimono were still the norm for men at home and for women. Japan underwent a vast array of changes after the Meiji Restoration. Fuji, the tea ceremony, and the sacred objects of nature revered in Shintoism. The Emperor determines the organization and peace standing of the Army and Navy. The noncommissioned officer class ranks were: gochō or corporal, gunsō or sergeant, sōchō or sergeant major, and tokumu-sōchō or special sergeant major. The Meiji restoration refers to the re-emergence of an emperor in Japan. The rights of sovereignty of the State, We have inherited from Our Ancestors, and We shall bequeath them to Our descendants. The Emperor is the head of the Empire. Although Buddhism suffered from state sponsorship of Shinto, it had its own resurgence. The Jiyūtō, which had opposed the Kaishinto, was disbanded in 1884 and Ōkuma resigned as Kaishintō president. These parts of Meiji homes were displayed in popular magazines of the time, such as Ladies' Graphic, which portrayed the often empty rooms of the homes of the aristocracy of all levels, including the imperial palaces. The original text is believed to have been written by Yuri Kimimasa, an official of thefiefof Fukui. The year 2018 has seen many events in Japan marking 150 years since the Meiji Restoration. Nakae, C. and Tsukui, N. and Hammond, J. This paper deals with how modern western medical doctors were developed in Japan from late Edo to early Meiji. The motto of the era was “Enrich the Country and Strengthen the Military” and at the helm of this effort was Emperor Meiji. Those who had been informally involved in foreign trade before the Meiji Restoration also flourished. , The production of kimono started to use Western technologies such as synthetic dye, and decoration was sometimes influenced by Western motifs. Within the ruling circle, however, and despite the conservative approach of the leadership, Okuma continued as a lone advocate of British-style government, a government with political parties and a cabinet organized by the majority party, answerable to the national assembly. The Industrial Revolution in Japan occurred during the Meiji era. Japanese subjects are amenable to service in the Army and Navy, according to the provisions of law. The pervasive philosophy of “Civilization and Enlightenment” impacted social policy throughout Japan and aspired to “correct” Japanese culture and to cultivate the idea of “civilizing” the nation.  The period from 1890 to 1910 was known as the "Golden age" of Japanese enamels. Some would hold fast to the centuries of Japanese tradition, rejecting any shifts in gender roles or education and military reforms, while other reformers embraced change. Shinto was released from Buddhist administration and its properties restored. The private classes were: jōtō-hei or upper soldier, ittō-sotsu or first-class soldier, and nitō-sotsu or second-class soldier. There were at least two reasons for the speed of Japan's modernization: the employment of more than 3,000 foreign experts (called o-yatoi gaikokujin or 'hired foreigners') in a variety of specialist fields such as teaching English, science, engineering, the army and navy, among others; and the dispatch of many Japanese students overseas to Europe and America, based on the fifth and last article of the Charter … The shōgun class,[clarification needed] not happy with Ōmura's views on conscription, assassinated him the following year.. An Era of Change . Its five provisions consisted of: Implicit in the Charter Oath was an end to exclusive political rule by the bakufu (a shōgun's direct administration including officers), and a move toward more democratic participation in government. Perhaps most dramatically, it abolished the old system of a social hierarchy based on inherited status. The Diet could approve government legislation and initiate laws, make representations to the government, and submit petitions to the Emperor. Yet, in the sixteenth century, the Portuguese missionaries introduced the first Western-style music to Japan: sacred choral music, music for organ, flute, harp, trumpet, violin, alto, double bass. The positions of chancellor (or chief-minister), minister of the left, and minister of the right, which had existed since the seventh century as advisory positions to the Emperor, were all abolished. As well as heavily funding the fairs, the government took an active role organising how Japan's culture was presented to the world.  The enlisted corps ranks were: private, noncommissioned officers, and officers. Following World War I, a weakened Europe left a greater share in international markets to the United States and Japan, which emerged greatly strengthened. They formed a close circle around the emperor and advised him on everything. However, while receiving strong impetus and pressure from abroad, Japan made earnest efforts to mobilize its civil service and people to catch up.  The French government also contributed greatly to the training of Japanese officers. [...] Kawashima of Kyoto [...] inaugurated the departure a few years ago by copying a Gobelin, but it may safely be asserted that no Gobelin will bear comparison with the pieces now produced in Japan". In 1871, a group of Japanese politicians known as the Iwakura Mission toured Europe and the US to learn western ways. Topics for Discussion How did Japan learn Western technology in the Meiji period? The aim of the Senmon Gakkō was to produce a professional class, rather than intellectual elite. On its return, one of the first acts of the government was to establish new ranks for the nobility. Four years into the Meiji Period, the government issued the Educational Order of 1872 (Gakusei,) which formed the basis for the modern public system of education in Japan. Article I. Establishment of a modern institutional framework conducive to an advanced capitalist economy took time, but was completed by the 1890s.  Artists experimented with pastes and with the firing process to produce ever larger blocks of enamel, with less need for cloisons (enclosing metal strips). Among those were: The abolition of the feudal system and all feudal class privileges. Domestic commercial activities and limited foreign trade had met the demands for material culture until the Keiō era, but the modernized Meiji era had radically different requirements. This arsenal was responsible for the development and manufacture of small arms and associated ammunition. Ito observed the role that the constitutions of various nations played in guiding the conduct and institutions of the nations he visited. Since Shinto and Buddhism had molded into a syncretic belief in the prior one-thousand years and Buddhism had been closely connected with the shogunate, this involved the separation of Shinto and Buddhism (shinbutsu bunri) and the associated destruction of various Buddhist temples and related violence (haibutsu kishaku). In reality, the Emperor was head of state but the Prime Minister was the actual head of government.  As his career went on, he adopted more Western influences on his decoration, while his works shaped Western perceptions of Japanese design. , Satsuma ware was a name originally given to pottery from Satsuma province, elaborately decorated with gilt and enamel. Modern industry first appeared in textiles, including cotton and especially silk, which was based in home workshops in rural areas. Foreign military systems were studied, foreign advisers, especially French ones, were brought in, and Japanese cadets sent abroad to Europe and the United States to attend military and naval schools. In 1880, there was founded Music Research Institute in Tokyo (Ongaku Torishirabe Gakari) headed by Izawa Shuji.  For men, the trend was for highly decorative under-kimono that would be covered by outer kimono that were plain or very simply designed. In 1882, Ōkuma Shigenobu established the Rikken Kaishintō (Constitutional Progressive Party), which called for a British-style constitutional democracy. The Meiji era saw a flowering of public discourse on the direction of Japan.  This monumental law, signifying the beginning of the end for the samurai class, initially met resistance from both the peasant and warrior alike. After studying the Prussian and Austrian constitutions, Ito, Japanese leaders, and Western scholars began drafting the Meiji Constitution in 1881. ), located in the middle of the megacity, Tokyo. After the first twenty years of the Meiji era, the industrial economy expanded rapidly until about 1920 with inputs of advanced Western technology and large private investments. , At the start of the Meiji era, Japanese metalwork was almost totally unknown outside the country, unlike lacquer and porcelain which had previously been exported. In 1854, after US Navy Admiral Matthew C. Perry forced the signing of the Treaty of Kanagawa, Japanese elites took the position that they needed to modernize the state's military capacities, or risk further coercion from Western powers. Meiji (1868-1912), Taisho (1912-26) and Showa (1926-89) Periods. Article XXIX. By this time, the government had largely relinquished direct control of the modernization process, primarily for budgetary reasons. Article XI. The Meiji Restoration was originally brought about by ancient clan loyalties to the Emperor Komei and a hatred of the ruling Tokugawa Shogunate. Avoidance methods included maiming, self-mutilation, and local uprisings. With the contribution of foreign and Japanese authors, the first military music score collections were completed and published.  For the 1876 Centennial International Exhibition in Philadelphia, the Japanese government created a Centennial Office and sent a special envoy to secure space for the 30,000 items that would be displayed. This site is protected by reCAPTCHA and the Google, First Decades of the First Republic: 1911-1931. The peasant class interpreted the term for military service, ketsu-eki (blood tax) literally, and attempted to avoid service by any means necessary. Increasingly, however, Japanese thinkers identified with Western ideology and methods. When the United States Navy ended Japan's sakoku policy, and thus its isolation, the latter found itself defenseless against military pressures and economic exploitation by the Western powers. Foremost among these was Shibata Zeshin, who has been called "Japan's greatest lacquerer". Although limited in their authority, these assemblies represented a move in the direction of representative government at the national level, and by 1880 assemblies also had been formed in villages and towns. Rather than leave an enemy behind him, Saigō laid siege to the castle. Instructor: Christopher Sailus Chris has an M.A. On the basis of its fundamental principle “Rights and Liberty” “Independence and Self-government”, we accept individuals from around the world to become a university open to the world. A major proponent of representative government was Itagaki Taisuke (1837–1919), a powerful Tosa leader who had resigned from the Council of State over the Korean affair in 1873. Thus, the Orthodox mission introduced the traditional choral music in Japan.  During this era, technical and artistic innovations turned porcelain into one of the most internationally successful Japanese decorative art forms. The decades to come witnessed Japan grow at an unprecedented rate, with its economy reaching heights that were unseen in Asia. In 1880 delegates from twenty-four prefectures held a national convention to establish the Kokkai Kisei Dōmei. One member of the delegation was the statesman Ito Hirobumi. Government leaders, long preoccupied with violent threats to stability and the serious leadership split over the Korean affair, generally agreed that constitutional government should someday be established. New laws in 1875 prohibited press criticism of the government or discussion of national laws. 1988. 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