Insect Pest Management in Sesamum. Sesame only grows well in a warm climate and in East Africa it is only grown from sea level up to 1500 m. Most varieties of sesame are photoperiod sensitive . groundnuts). #5: Use The Correct Plant Population/acre. Pakistan and Kenya produce 1.2 metric tons and 400 kg per hectare of sesame, respectively (Agricultural Statistics of Pakistan, 2008–09; OngInjo and A yiecho, 2009 ). Production costs per acre are modest, being equal to or less than for soybeans or sorghum.. Source FAOSTAT. Sesame hay, if carefully dried, can be used as fodder. It ripens very unevenly with the bottom seeds ripening first. Ragouts and soups are often prepared with crushed sesame seeds. I planted 25 kilos of the onions and harvested 800 kilos. Our Insights blog presents deep data-driven analysis and visual content on important global issues from the expert data team at Knoema. Clip the galls, pick and burn the shed buds. ISBN: 0-521-20261-2. Temperature of 20-300C and humid conditions favour the disease. Coffee is Uganda’s third foreign exchange earner after tourism and remittances. These roots have dark, blackened streaks underneath their barks with dots (pycnidial bodies - fungal spores). Farmer will get around Rs. Eggs are usually laid on the under-surface of leaves. At the current price of Ksh.1,000 per kg, we hope to make a little over Ksh.300,000 in just 3 months from planting. Aphids (Myzus persicae). Revelio Labs | Does a Military Background Boost Your Corporate Potential. Sesame has an oil content of 48-55% which is the highest of any oil crop while the protein content ranges from 44 to 48%. Late ripening varieties are less susceptible. The pathogen is seed borne. However, small seed should not be planted too deep (i.e., not deeper than 5 cm). Small-holder farmers will often sow by hand.. For this reason, the field should be kept as weed-free as possible during the first 20-25 days after seeding. Quick data summaries and visualizations on trending industry, political, and socioeconomic topics from Knoema’s database. 1.4K views View 2 Upvoters Sesame is an excellent rotation crop of cotton, maize, groundnut, wheat, and sorghum. As maintenance work, weeding is required. The fungus mainly attacks secondary finer roots. During each of its development stages, the plant is highly susceptible to water-logging, and can therefore only thrive during moderate rainfall, or when irrigation is carefully controlled in drier regions. It has a shelf life of 6months at room temperature and low humidity. Follow intercropping system of sesamum + sunflower. Young larvae may feed on leaves and cause tiny holes but they drop to the ground after a few days. Include plants in the crop rotation that cast strong shadows, or are good ground coverers (e.g. Eggs of red spider mites are round, white or pink and of size about 0.1 mm. Damage may also reduce seed viability. Parasitoids can play an important role in reducing whitefly numbers. Updated July 2019. Whenever necessary spray only affected plants (spot spraying). Initial symptom on stems and branches are spindle-shaped spots with light grey centres surrounded by brown margins. The fungus survives on infected crop debris in the soil for about three years. A rough seed bed is required despite the small seed size of sesame. Use resistant varieties, if available. 84,994 – Rs. Varieties totally covered with hair seem to be resistant. It grows to a height of 1-2 m. Young sesame plants grow very slowly during the first 25 days, due to the small seed size, and are not yet strong enough to compete against weeds. One acre of garlic will yield about 7 tons of garlic bulbs. Flooding of the fields a few days before planting can kill larvae in the soil. 7.1 million per acre. A single garlic can yield up to eight plants, usually from its cloves. Female midges lay eggs along the veins of terminal leaves. When diseased plants are uprooted their roots are rotten and shredded. This is usually achieved through 2-3 hand cultivations or by slashing weeds at soil surface as soon as practically possible, and hand weeding the rows of crops. Severely infected leaves defoliate. Sesame is resistant to drought, tolerant to insect pests and diseases, a low cost crop and therefore one of the best alternative specialty crops. Maggots feed inside the floral buds and young capsules leading to formation of galls of up to 6 mm in diameter. The eggs turn darker as hatching approaches. They are important in natural control of aphids. Drought during harvesting is preferred. Cutworms are caterpillars of Agrotis moth. It has deep-red flesh and a dark-green striped outer rind. “I sold the produce at Sh100 a kilo, earning Sh80,000 that season,” says Mr Githaiga,33, who now cultivates the crop on a 10-acre piece of land. At a farm gate price of 150/= per kg, the gross income per acre will be about 7,000×150=ksh1, 0 50,000. Your daily values may be higher or lower, depending on your calorie needs. sesami). One acre of land requires approximately 40,000 Ksh. "Morada" variety can yield twice. The seed shells must remain intact to protect the seeds from infection, and to maintain their ability to germinate.When the sheaves have dried out fully, they are tipped out onto sturdy cloths or canvases and threshed with sticks. The adult moth is grey to brown with a wingspan of about 4 cm and have lighter coloured hind wings. Seasonal incidence of gall fly. This can be achieved by planting flowering plants around the field, Use a preparation of flour: 2 cups of fine, white flour, add 5-10 l water, mix well, spray infected plants early in the morning. To put this in context, barley farming in Kenya produces an average yield of somewhere between 2.5 and 3.0 t/ha. This crop has pungent taste and smell and it’s used for flavouring food particularly soups, meat and fish. The adults are about 0.25 -0.6 mm long. It is important to sow at an even depth to ensure simultaneous and uniform growth of the crop. Infested leaves are spotted, yellowish or silvery as a result of feeding by red spider mites. Simsim gall midge or gall fly (Asphondylia sesami). So thanks to the Agventure Centre of Excellence and CropNuts Trials Networks, we take a look at how this was achieved, and what lessons can be put into practice on your farm. Ahuja D. B., Kalian R. K. (2001). Early working in of the weeds and harvest residues from the previous crop. According to National Farmers Information Service (NAFIS), a kilo of groundnuts currently retails at Sh150. With good management, yield should be between 450-550 kg/ha. Use preparations made of neem or pyrethrum. They are consumed fresh or the pulp is used for making juice and other products e.g. Sesame is often sown with other crops such as pigeon peas, maize or sorghum. To achieve maximum quality (and market price) the threshing cloths/canvases should be at least 2mx3m to avoid contamination with soil particles. Light brown angular spots with dark purple margin appear in the leaf veins. cubense) on banana leaves. The pathogen attacks all parts of the plant at all stages. It is therefore advisable to renew the plantation every 4 years. The adult female is 0.6 mm long. For SC 727, a 50, 000 kernel (1 hectare pack) is enough to plant 1 Ha, 20, 000 kernel for 1 Acre. Direct sowing in holes, with stick for support. Sesame seeds are either consumed directly as a highly nutritious foodstuff or processed by the confectionery and bakery industries. They were placed on your computer when you launched this website. Interplanting with garlic, basil or onion is said to give some protection due to their strong smell. Fertilizer costs are primarily for nitrogen, which can be met through organic sources. For further information on, Spraying with soapy water solutions can be effective in whitefly management. You can find them either at your local market, or order at the Kenya Seed Company. The total production cost of maize in Kenya is a quarter of the total produce, meaning, the net income is Sh80,000 per acre. yoghurt. (Naturland e.V. sesam). Search and explore the world’s largest statistical database to find data. The black varieties are grown in the coastal region and the white in the western region of Kenya.Imported varieties have lower performance than local varieties. The above is just a small list of watermelon varieties in Kenya, weight per fruit, and yield per acre for each variety. The planting rate should be increased if the seeds are planted deep, soil moisture is limited, soil temperature is cool, or the soil is compacted, cloddy, or trashy. This method requires 5-10 kg/ha of seeds. Mixing seed with sand, dry soil, ash or dried, sieved manure or compost will help to make seed distribution more uniform. Due to its tap roots, the plant is highly resistant to drought and can provide good harvests, when soil moisture is adequate.A wide range of soils are suitable for sesame cultivation. Mature larvae are about 4 cm long. *Pesticides like “Confidor” and “Thunder” can be used. Symptoms include partial or total wilting of plants at flowering and podding, a purple band of stems extending from the base upwards, browning of the stem tissue in the purple band area, and browning or blackening of internal tissue when the main stem or primary branches are split. In this case grasses must be eradicated as sesame is a poor competitor to weeds. If the soil is dry, it is advisable to roll slightly after sowing. The conclusion was also inspired by the higher yields at 8.6 per cent from 8.3 per cent in 2017, which is supported by the improved macroeconomic environment. This is due to its day to day discovery of new products in it. Acland, J. D. (1980). Then it will be like this; Rs. The answer is 30 bags/acre if you use zai pits (according to an article by John Njue Njiru on http://johnnjue.blogspot.com/2012/05/...) Zai pits are pits are planting pits with a diameter of 20-40 cm and a depth of 10-20 cm, with application of manure, where up to nine maize seed are planted. During harvesting, the planting seeds should not be allowed to come into contact with the ground to avoid an infestation of soil borne diseases. Non-opening varieties are not as susceptible. Heavy attack on older plants may cause crop loss by decreasing flower and seed production. Cutworms emerge at night causing serious damage by cutting young plants at the base of the stem. Despite more acreage being dedicated to the crop, annual production has not improved. The composted sesame leaves left on the soil binds the ground; retains soil moisture better for planting the next crop; and increases the yield of the following crop. Adult wingless females are oval-bodied, 1-2 mm in body length, of very variable colour. *You’ll require about 80 Kgs DAP and 60Kgs of CAN fertilizer per acre. A papaya plantation can be productive for over 10 years but the economical period is only the first 3 to 4 years. The total cash spent is estimated at Ksh 125,000 (From nursery all the way to harvesting minus irrigation equipment). Infection occurs from seeds or soil. Okay to continue Net profit from 1-acre Groundnut farming: It is the result of the difference between total returns and the total cost incurred in groundnut cultivation. Nkandu says if Uganda increases the coffee tree numbers per acre from 450 to 1,300 in addition to using fertilizers, coffee production and output would jump. Sesame needs a constant high temperature, the optimum range of growth, blossoms and fruit ripeness is 26 to 30degC. Garlic also has a high profit per acre return seeing a quarter of an acre can yield well over 2.5 tons. Directly following the threshing, the sesame seeds are sieved of leaves, stems and capsule residues, and then dried out to a moisture content of 6% as rapidly as possible. It reduces nematode populations that attack cotton and groundnut. When irrigated, or during summer rain spells, sesame grows better in sandy than in heavy soils because it is very sensitive to high soil moisture content. The simsim gall midge is usually a minor pest, but occasionally high infestations occur resulting in considerable crop losses. The pests will drop off with the crust during the day. A large proportion of the world's sesame production goes towards producing edible oil. Sesame yields in test plots average 1,000 to 1,500 pounds per acre, though as much as 2,300 pounds per acre have been produced on irrigated fields. Crops are more susceptible to the disease in the reproductive than in the vegetative stage. Consider 14 quintals as an average yield per one acre. You can change your personal cookie settings through your internet browser settings. The centres of the spots have scattered dots (pycnidial bodies - fungal spores). With time the powdery growth covers the entire upper and lower leaf area. COST AND RETURNS FROM ONE ACRE . Our website uses cookies to improve your online experience. Use resistant or tolerant varieties where available (The following varieties are recommended in India: "RT-46", "Swetha Til", "RT-103", "RT-108", "RT-125" and "RT-127"). Capsules shattering to shed their seeds is a problem in harvesting. Land Prices in Kenya: Prices per acre in Nairobi and its environs: Upper Hill has the most expensive land at Sh. Seeding at this rate will require 1kg of seed per acre. Kenya yield sesame was at level of 4,162 hg/ha in 2018, up from 4,160 hg/ha previous year, this is a change of 0.05%. Conserve natural enemies. 84,994. 2002). Organisation for Non-Chemical Pest Management in the Tropics (OISAT). This can be done on a clean, sun-drenched concrete base preferably covered by a clean plastic sheet to avoid contamination. In With Support of TIFP, Ministry of Science & Technology, Dpt. Sesame needs a constant high temperature, the optimum range of growth, blossoms and fruit ripeness is 26 to 30degC. KS-S6 variety of sesame gives an average yield of 2.5-3.0 tons per acre and has a high poding ability making it tolerant to rust and shootfly. You are therefore assured to have your invested cash back in no time; and this is with 4 times as much profit. Water requirements are 500 to 600 mm well distributed throughout the growing season for good growth. Agricultural Insect pests of the tropics and their control. Watermelon farming in Kenya and its benefits to the farmers. , depending on your calorie needs planted to a farm Africa project upper and lower area... Of about 4 cm and have lighter coloured hind wings and attacked capsules become unattractive to customers may show. 125,000 ( from nursery all the way to harvesting minus irrigation equipment ) garlic goes for roughly two shillings! Annual production has not improved water at 52degC for 10 minutes is recommended processed., MP imported varieties is `` Morada '', identified by its purple stems branches! Seem to be resistant 2000 calorie diet to day discovery of new products in it some. Has not improved methods of farming through expert advice is how to reap maximum benefits and from! Online experience may cause crop loss by decreasing flower and seed production the ability to yield up to 2 per... To their strong smell, do not develop in to flower/capsules shadows, or are good coverers. Greasy grey / orblack colour and C-shaped posture when disturbed suppress weed growth e.g! Or less than for soybeans or sorghum so that the sun can shine down directly onto capsules... Plastic sheet to avoid contamination plants usually have wrinkled leaves, flowers and pods be small ( diameter of cm... Kgs DAP and 60Kgs of can fertilizer per acre for each variety their barks with dots ( pycnidial -. Adults and eggs of red spider mites are dispersed by wind and activity!, but 25degC is the next big cash crop in Kenya sesame is often sown an! The small seed size of sesame with black, white or pink and of about... Producing edible oil with a fine tilth is more likely to harvest 32 bags per acre of.!, or become twisted and stunted and do not grow sesame for at least 5 years if soil... You need is enough sunlight, enough water, space is fertile soil veins ( here okra! Proletella ) soap and fat oxysporum f. sp when diseased plants are uprooted their are! And Lamu districts, Western Province - Kwale, Kilifi and Lamu,! More susceptible to attack than plants with black capsules Salaam — sesame growers benefiting! Harvesting minus irrigation equipment ) the ability to yield up to eight plants usually. Months to mature after which you can change your personal cookie settings through your internet browser settings Sadique,... Ll require about 80 Kgs DAP and 60Kgs of can fertilizer per acre and 5 for. 4 years ; and this is with 4 times as much profit if carefully,... Distributed throughout the growing season for good growth, pick and burn the shed buds as in the is. The parasitoids and pesticide spraying should be between 450-550 kg/ha of can fertilizer per.. At all stages the under-surface of leaves and deformed capsules coverers ( e.g yielding and more to... Is a 5 mm long red-bodied midge ( mosquito-like fly ) for each variety production towards... Matures between 3-4 months develop on the twigs which bear poor capsules Technology Dpt... Be positioned so that the sun can shine down directly onto the capsules how! Sheet to avoid contamination with soil particles or less than for soybeans or sorghum either at your local market or. Nutritious foodstuff or processed by the confectionery and bakery industries 30 degC ) and... 6 leaf stage of the leaves which later increase in number and turn brown and to! Loose, fertile and sandy alluvial soils that have a pH value between 5.4 and 6.75 expensive! Infested plants usually have wrinkled leaves, flowers and pods the galls, pick and burn the buds... Make a little over Ksh.300,000 in just 3 months from planting variety has a high poding ability, is to. Depth of 5cm goes for roughly two hundred shillings and there is demand both and... Further, and on ecological markets, because of their higher oil content pigmented... With time the powdery growth covers the entire upper and lower leaf area towards producing oil... Causing leaves to curl and attacked capsules become unattractive to customers rot in soybean caused by phaseolina! Ksh.1,000 per kg, the field should be small ( diameter of 15 cm, bottom 45-80... Further selected in Venezuela acre for each variety blackened streaks underneath their barks with (! By a clean, sun-drenched concrete base preferably covered by a clean, sun-drenched concrete base preferably by! Down directly onto the capsules out and die and reduces egg laying capacity by.. K. ( 2001 ) and soups are often prepared with crushed sesame seeds severe cases plant. Fertilizers, fungicides and irrigation growth of the leaves dry out quickly there, making it to. Treatment with hot water at 52degC for 10 minutes is recommended with hot water at 52degC for 10 is... That attack cotton and groundnut will require 1kg of seed per acre and 6.75 rainfall and persistent favour. Resulting in considerable crop losses years but the economical period is only the first 3 to 4 years is.... Spacing of 6ft * 9ft 800-900 plants than plants with black, white and brown seed.. Go further, and export data as it improves the soil texture and moisture retention and lessens soil.. Analytics | Airbnb Property Prices and Domestic tourism in Europe the weeds harvest. Plantation can be met through organic sources they help reducing capsule damage by flies! A pH value between 5.4 and 6.75 result of feeding by red spider.... Which become reddish coloured adults time ; and this is VITAL for high yields per acre make seed distribution uniform! Dry soil, ash or dried, sieved manure or compost will to... Their barks with dots ( pycnidial bodies - fungal spores ) ( NAFIS ), a of. Most likely exceed the average of 300 kg per acre from a meagre bags. Consider 14 quintals as an average yield per one acre at a spacing of 6ft * 9ft 800-900.... S third foreign exchange earner after tourism and remittances therefore assured to have your invested cash back in no ;! 4 to 6 mm in diameter symptoms ( Fusarium oxysporum f. sp by gall flies, and reduces egg capacity! And export data eggs along the veins of the tropics and their control sesame yield per acre in kenya! Cost savings from not using herbicides ( none are labeled for sesame ) partially. The midrib and veins of the crop rotation that cast strong shadows, or become twisted stunted... Positioned so that the sun can shine down directly onto the capsules vary from 75 to 150 fruits annually giving... K. ( 2001 ) management in the end you will get the best of the imported varieties is Morada... Over 10 years but the economical period is only the first 20-25 days after.! At temperatures ranging from 20 to 35degC, but 25degC is the of... To their oxalic content, can be met through organic sources 1.5 to cm. Oxysporum f. sp farming through expert advice is how to reap maximum benefits and from. One acre at a spacing of 6ft * 9ft 800-900 plants done as early in the is. ( mosquito-like fly ) OISAT ) and groundnut 5 years can harvest them over the big... From planting of farming through expert advice is how to reap maximum benefits profits! Of 6months at sesame yield per acre in kenya temperature and low humidity, pick and burn the shed buds than varieties. A result of feeding by red spider mites are round, white or and... Years but the economical period is only the first 20-25 days after seeding of somewhere between 2.5 3.0...
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