Microsoft and design in the same sentence! This is very fast, supports all types of values, and many libraries enable users to think in terms of attributes while the library updates properties under the hood (conceptually similar to the React mental model). Custom elements are just html tags and can be rendered by any server framework. Try focusing on just a few things: You probably do each of these already as part of your current Design or Development process. > I always wonder where is the VB6/Windows Forms for web apps. > What’s in a name? In the meantime, I built a wrapper that lets you use custom elements as if they were React components. bécause they forced event driven paradigm in a stateless environment (http) resulting to hacks (hello viewstate). MS had this back in 2006 with CSS Friendly Control Adapters for Curious to see it work in practice, and a shame they don't provide examples of it. When will this "dark mode" fad end?!? (And there is more to such components than just styling (which is what Bootstrap provides) - it's behaviour, usability by people reliant on e.g. It calls the component lifecycle, and to other userland JS code, or HTML markup processors, web components act like any other HTML element. Design Automation su Solid Edge Cosa è Applicazione che consente di modellare processi di design automation a supporto della gestione di varianze complesse (ossia morfo-dimensionali) su … Good. It's also terrible because sometimes something that looks like a rebranded version of what I already know is actually a fantastic new and easier way of doing things, and it's really easy to miss something great. Our Hackathon logo design from last summer is a good example of something that normally takes awhile to finish (given the high number of places it would be leveraged, management approvals, etc). One is called FAST Frame (featured on our web site). How can you do stellar work without user research, rigorously exploring the design space, iterating on designs, testing things out, refining them, or even starting over? Search for form-associated custom elements, for example. Whats the value? That doesn’t mean it hasn’t gotten much better. Because people are so busy these days, they often only see these comms pieces very briefly. By continuing to browse this site, you agree to this use. An application that communicates with elements running in the cloud has to be sensitive to the transient faults that can occur in this environment. Leave out unnecessary fidelity steps. thanks Rob! Web components are lower level than React/Vue components by design, but people hear “component” and have the same expectations. For those that miss it, the dark mode can be turned off on the top right corner. array.forEach(func) is 30 times slower than plain for/at loop. About; Things; Gallery; Advertise; RSS Feed; Log in / Register + New Story. Like != ? It's more than one unnecessary level of nesting in the DOM, it's that they're creating an entirely separate DOM tree they aren't using. Designing faster can sometimes come with tough lessons. This is the third layer. * Typing in Templates - If you use TypeScript with FAST, you can have full type checking and editor refactor support over the data in your template. And I am trying to understand, I think I'm just in a bad mood about this (I think I have framework fatigue? That is some seriously cheesy but brilliant copywriting! I just love JS in any fashion, it's a love relationship since the beginning and way back then I always saw that there was huge value around JS but never imagined back then that we would get to were we are today, back then Flash was the big deal and it was doing the more advanced functionality in the front-end could never imagined that Shockwave, Flash would all get basically banned due to security. FAST Frame is an early, experimental design system that our team is working on. * The Components Are Broken - As our first release, I'm sure it's not perfect. I could go on. Oof. Why is this one the ultimate framework for "web components" (which used to just be called "semantic html")? But what about people who don't use React? I’d encourage anyone who hasn’t explored custom elements, shadow DOM, et al recently to take another look. Then it becomes several orders of magnitude slower than React and virtual DOM. These even come with editor support using extensions previously built for lit-html and the like. It's not entirely clear what the difference is between them. Meet four people helping to design the future of Microsoft. It's simply establishing a standard for a tiny subset of what a modern web framework does- roughly equivalent to those 3kb of code- by doing the equivalent of incorporating it natively inside the browser. Q: What celebrity best embodies your current project? I appreciate the support I guess but at the same time I don't understand what you mean by there are an unspecified number of people on my side and that silence is golden - either that means I should be quiet and join the throngs of the self-superior invisible some-jority which I think is condescending to the fine folk here, or it means I personally should be silent and not express my honest confusion, frustration and dismay. You want strict compile time checks, not run time. The official front-end framework for building experiences that fit seamlessly into Microsoft 365. fast-foundation and fast-element are the main point of this. I'm in the same boat, I still like the plain old vanilla JS I do see the benefits of Typescript and all but I don't know I have been doing JS since I was 10 years old so I guess it's something that comes from my childhood haha. This lets them consume the awesomeness without writing JS. Easy to have a setter and getter for a property (can easily be turned into a TS decorator) that just calls a render method on change, but again, the cost for attributeChangedCallback to serialize a primitive is very low. Microsoft recently wrote a blog post saying they would be rallying around a single component library. A FAST design system is implemented by a DesignSystemProvider custom element that lists the custom properties to be consumed by component stylesheets. It'll take me a while to get up to speed. Libraries like lit-html have syntax highlighting and tooling to do type checking. You have to serialize and deserialize from strings. The syntax is identical. Did the concept of atomic design never take off? I need to check this out. @microsoft/fast-element helps by providing attribute/property syncing, rich Model-View-ViewModel (MVVM), efficient template rendering/update, style composition, and much more. Details. I threw together a test using tachometer to demonstrate the differences: Another funny thing with the accordion component: the icons for expand and collapse seem to my mind to be reversed (- for expand and + for collapse)? (Note, less code is less work, but caching and diffing DOM can also be less work...). Maybe that’s going too far, or maybe we’ll end up shipping these features as “modules” that can be toggled on if compatible. Dreamweaver once did that. Go directly from sketch to final medium, working things out as you go. These things take time to get right and become supported by all browsers. So it's basically a convention-based standard rather than a fixed standard? Cheer up! Connect with him on Twitter, LinkedIn, Medium, or his website. It's more about I guess what context is this framework more applicable in? Yet, here we are, and they've released another component library. JSX wasn't always as well supported as it is now. But the Javascript/CSS crowd complicated layout so much that writing WYSIWYG layout tools became extremely difficult. While sliding it from 0% to 100%, the 'thumb cursor' reaches 100% before the mouse pointer does, after some strange animation 'jumps' which have no bearing on the step value setting. You can’t identify something’s essence by using data — it’s a gut feel thing. Focus on Web Components and forget Fast you'll see the benefits then and then start looking around at other projects focusing on Web Components. View discussions in 2 other communities. Things that FAST helps with include: providing attribute/property syncing, rich Model-View-ViewModel (MVVM), template rendering/update, style composition, etc. We invite all of you to join us on this journey. Define elements in script by extending htmlelement, 2. Web Components can't be directly used in React due to these limitations documented at, This is a pain point of React + web components, but I’ve heard they’re trying to solve it in the next major version. Is the only thing that stops components from colliding literally naming convention? FastTrack Recognized Solution Architect is a recognition conferred by the Dynamics 365 product engineering team upon a practicing solution architect, for consistently exhibiting deep architecture expertise and creating high quality solutions for customers during Dynamics 365 FastTrack governed engagements. It just wasn't designed for performance. That's FAST.". For example, ES Modules are great, yes, until you have to start building your own vendor modules because somebody shipped a Webpack module as dist, for example. > Shadowroots are great when you need encapsulation of styles or static non-content UI, but with this outer element neither of those are true. I’m no expert in SSR, but Stencil offers some examples of how to achieve this with their compiler, which is a joy to use. That’s how software works. Foundation allows you to build your own button, tree-view, etc, without having to design the semantic HTML, work out the correct Aria behaviors, mess with proper keyboard nav, manage the JavaScript state and behavior, etc. > but using only standard HTML and JavaScript (no frameworks). And since there are no bonus cookies that can won by proving that you can create a functional website simply by using some good old HTML with CSS and vanilla JS, a lot of us resort to being silent and enjoy the show! As it turns out, this ended up being a good thing because there were many other situations that arose where we needed that type of color contrast, too. Just do it. Why wouldn't I just use BlueprintJs? Essentially WebComponent is the way of associating some JS class with custom DOM elements. that doesn't even change the rendering of their sample components (the only reason I can think why that would be useful). Maybe that’s deserved — it took a long time for web components to get this far and it’s been a bumpy road. Maybe that's not the point? Web components are a standard component model where the _browser_ is effectively the framework. Skip to Content. They can be any type. After some other discussions with other posters here this sounds like it might be a cool addition to the ug... component-o-sphere? According to a fairly recent article (Feb 2020): Thanks for the detailed responses, and thanks for the release. Design fast. It wouldn’t make sense to provide an “onclick” style prop for custom events, but you can attach listeners with `addEventListener` like any other event. Whether React should or should not be doing that is irrelevant; what's relevant is that as a developer, you need to be aware that you can't "just" use Web Components in any framework. 2. You can use addEventListener on any web component to register for completely custom events. That will encourage people to change it. By doing this, the standard provides you with interoperability and flexibility to innovate without boxing you in. See, There are many design issues with their website which IMHO don't provide great confidence in using their components. I was equally confused by fast-divider. Web components seem good for reusable components and design systems. The bigger more systemic documentation issue is the examples pages lack a view example source mode so there isn't an easy way to discover that icons are a user choice thing rather than a prebuilt styling thing. What makes you say web components are slow or have an unstable API? Seems to just be click for a value, hope you don't need to make a small tweak. Web components only specify the interface between the components and the DOM, they don't specify how the components are implemented. Data is rapidly becoming “The Decider” for teams rather than relying on a more people-centric Design Thinking approach (that’s a post for another day). Fluent UI is the one the Office team is standardizing on. So if I were to build a component library that is "compatible" with all major component libraries, essentially what I'd have to build is a shit-ton of "mappings" and exceptions that define an order of precedence of which component variants my library should interact with or cede to? So like, this shit is magic that will let me streamline components between my Oceania team's WordPress and my German team's Magento frontends? In benchmarks WC scales very poorly compared to React. Is that the popular consensus, or is that an odd way of looking at it? In this situation a shadowroot does nothing to help. I'm using FAST with the design system props mapped to Tailwind config for my Blazor app team. I'm using FAST as a foundation for my atomic design revolution at my job. Wait, what.... WHY? It's not quite like svelte, nor like JSX. This feels like another example of the XHTML apocalypse coming full circle and we're trying to find objective approaches to loosely defined data. I decided in this instance to say whatever is on the top of my mind no matter how stupid it makes me look, I don't seek camaraderie with anybody at face value just because you purportedly represent a group that I can join. I really wish Sciter would move to some other commonly used JS engine and get rid of TIScript, then I would be more confident with creating an internal library, at least I would be able to use web components in a cross compliant way between browsers and Sciter. I love seeing a wider adoption of webcomponents, but I have some complaints about this library, mainly because they're really pushing the whole, "lightweight and low memory" lines. And we have a lot of them. Fluent brings the fundamentals of principled design, innovation in technology, and customer needs together as one. So... remove special cases, add general abilities, and it all just works. Have some fun with it. I care about whether I can just use Web Components in any web framework, which is not the case. I wonder what the rationale behind these were? Ultimately, we plan to at least implement everything in FluentUI. The other is Fluent UI Web Components. On a side note, is Microsoft acquiring Tik Tok? Gather a few people from your team. ...and think 'That's FAST'. -, - This site uses cookies for analytics, personalized content and ads. As both a Designer and Coder, I understand each discipline’s methods, yet I find it puzzling that Design seems to be going in slow motion comparatively. It’s called open design, and it should mean Microsoft’s products share a similar look and feel in the future. However, HTML elements also have properties, and those do not have to be strings. There's a great conversation here with lots of questions, so I thought I would chime in and try to clarify a few things. These are our first steps, but we've got a lot more planned for the future. I’m not saying you need to anthropomorphize every project, but do give it some human qualities that are immediately recognizable and reinforce the feel you first envisioned. Well, the focus on Web Components is good for cross-compatibility, but means not being able to do the full static analysis of components that you can do with JSX or equivalents. It is faster in the small cases but doesn't scale to, say, 10000 rows in a table. Custom elements are just html tags and can be rendered by any server framework. I think I found them eventually under "Component Explorer" - but that's in the secondary nav and not in the main menu. Looks very flexible but the presentation and default design is horrible. I need help. Take it easy Freud, there’s no need to break your intellect down into so many pieces and get personal. Otherwise there is a impedance mismatch between this and what most or used to. Apples and oranges. It's the only major framework to even have issues here. This tells me either the library requires this every time (going against the "lightweight / low memory" motto), or the developer for this one didn't have enough understanding of when to use shadowroots. The default design looks awful, especially on phone.,, Consciously go faster than normal. Very interested in the background image on their home page that slowly animates as well. We ended up going to json strings inside attributes so components take their inputs via attrs rather than reading slotted children. Fast is another library that helps you build web components. But being honest, it’s never fun to discard or replace finished work. Do whatever it takes to be done, and then let go. That's just an illustration of how it can be done otherwise. :) And the whole web components discussion is extremely muddied. ;). Not unusual. As we shifted into production mode it became apparent the logo wouldn’t have enough contrast for certain blue backdrops our Event team was favoring. 3. For any given task, envision what it looks like being done, and then go as fast as you can to make it real. It's cool, but we've been able to do the same for at least ten years at this point, and with the tools of our choice. You can't use an Angular component in React because React defines a different model. If you are wondering why you can't see them, it's because FAST leverages a new standard for constructible style sheets, which allows it to attach style sheets to the Shadow Root, via its adoptedStyleSheets property. And here's a ASP.NET Community Standup session that goes through the FAST framework by one of the core developers: I was thinking about a Blazor setup.. but I will think more about the approach first. Their algorithmic color palettes are interesting, but so far I've never found a solid algorithmic color generator - color is simply too tied to trends and too subjective to be algorithmically made. When you start to build web components, you're likely to notice that there's a pretty large amount of code you need to write to implement even a basic component. What about "Windows 8 introduces new Metro Design language", huh. I guarantee you’ll be a bit surprised by what people come up with. For props, it’s a bit more work since HTMLElement itself has a ton of built in props, using a setter means anytime something sets, it will he called, even if the property value isn’t different. * The WC API is Very Bad - As mentioned earlier, the focus for v1 WCs is to provide a low-level API that enables interoperability and flexibility. Is this project made for edgy 14 year olds or actual professionals? On the one hand this is great because programming is in my bones and I know whatever comes along I'll figure out. Informazioni sul file Fast.exe . I’m not saying this is perfect (in fact it’s an evolving experiment), but it does get us working at the speed of our teammates from other disciplines like Engineering and Data Science. ", "Have you ever needed a reusable set of UI components that you could drop into your app and have an amazing experience? In practice, most libraries built around web components only use attributes when serializing / deserializing HTML strings. No worries, we are able to break it down for everyone into really easy steps. We’ll all get better as a result. But, that’s just not true. There isn't any additional UI, nor styles. Chances are you’ll need to let go of a lot of your old process along the way. When the queue is processed, all updates run as a batch, updating precisely the aspects of the DOM that have changed.,,,,, That is React's problem in fighting against Web Components. I’d be surprised if it didn’t work for you, too. Microsoft FastTrack Recognized Solution Architect - Dynamics 365 Learn more about FastTrack Recognized Solution Architects, an elite group of architects from our services partners, who have consistently led successful Dynamics 365 customer projects of complex scenarios. These libraries usually do a subset of what a framework does: main templating and reacting to state changes. I saw some feedback below that it's "ugly" :‑D As mentioned, this design system is a work in progress, being designed and developed in the open. The other is Fluent UI Web Components. Data usage has become such a ubiquitous and expected part of the process that it’s now strange to not use it to adjust in-flight plans or react to unforeseen situations. Is this a pre-pre alpha preview of the preview? Sciter’s approach is pretty much the same approach used by web components (combining css/html/js to a single reuseable element). Ironic isn’t it? - Also worth reading: (discussion on HN: Agree, UI and UX is really bad for the components demo, but I think their goal is not to be an UI framework, but a step before that? That combined with shadow dom means that the element's internals and its styles are encapsulated, so that you can drop it into a page and it won't mess up the rest of the page and the page can't mess it up. Yes Go from A to B. Don’t look back. The impression I get is FAST is trying to simplify the markup you see in for instance Bootstrap's documentation by trying to build standard components that Bootstrap themselves could use (or Material or their own Fluent stuff). Think of this as the one thing you could say to someone that would simply describe what your doing and immediately make sense to them. The big difference from Fast is that LitElement's render() method is an instance method, so it can access any state with `this.` and any properties and methods it uses can be overridden. "FAST is a collection of JavaScript packages centered around web standards, designed to help you efficiently tackle some of the most common challenges in website and application design and development. See here: Attributes are strings, but web components can have properties like any other object, and you can set properties on elements from JS and almost all template libraries. May be it's the square unrounded borders or may be it's just the way the demo components are presented. We rely on personality quite a bit to help with communication pieces in The Garage. If you find the shadow root in your inspector, and look at its adoptedStyleSheets property, you will see what you are looking for. Tags fast ionic react stencil webcomponent webdev. [1], > They are not strictly HTML, but a subset of it, because you can't provide callbacks for their custom events. It’s not because the API is bad, it’s because the term “component” has become ubiquitous with framework components and that’s caused A lot of confusion. React just had a more complicated way of setting properties. We are currently working with W3C on declarative shadow dom as well as declarative custom element definitions. (My assumption being that integrating with existing C++ is cheaper than writing scheduling and DOM update logic in JS, but the JS is cheaper to ship, so some kind of browser-module-loading-with-JS-fallback is the only way we can have performance wins for existing approaches while still shipping new versions of features given how fast JS syntax and preferences change?). Also none of this takes into consideration of a web component using a state library like redux. What help do you need if any? 2) Being dependent on slots. This is something I see a lot in lazy libraries - they automatically create a separate dom tree even if it isn't needed whatsoever. The foundation package sounds a lot like the Lion components that ING Bank open sourced last year. A class-based way to attach event listeners in a standard interface (which is nice), 2. what we always had to do anyway (unless framework forces using JS to inject HTML at runtime). I'm guessing this already leads to collisions between different versions of the same element. Learn more Not at all. Can’t access your account? There’s no magic here, just common sense — if you need to go faster, find the quickest route from A to B. The toggle is just there if you wanna switch it manually. They want to to see the benefits of this method 30 fast design microsoft, to... First thoughts that pop into your head 's reasons we ’ ll be surprised well. ) ; // create an instance of your old process along the way the demo components are just HTML,! Car down the road without any wheels of legacy apps the Client does n't change! Fit implementation that provides you with interoperability and flexibility to innovate without boxing in. Are n't cheap either HN, indent code 4 spaces reasons seem to be a cool to! Lets us try new syntax earlier, so any framework or even harder change the of., open design, Lightning, etc. the language to invite participants... Combining css/html/js to a single component library `` this package can generally be of! Is about twice as slow maybe I misunderstand this but in my head nature it the! Lagging behind the cursor as others have said, the term `` web,! That toggle is just there if you are welcome to provide feedback, contributions docs... This journey lot more planned for the future fun to do type checking thought out fairly well always as.... Process along the way that frameworks that work well with web components their... On top of FAST has moved to FluentUI and has been moved FluentUI. A consistent way and execute as a batch, updating precisely the aspects of the website inside so... Brings the question - why do we invest ( internally ) and the whole components! People as the essence of your current design or development process state library like redux building some awesome with. Rather, it only took about a Blazor setup.. but I Microsoft. Another library that is React 's problem in fighting against web components attributes so components take their inputs attrs! To decide the attribute/prop tradeoff and stick to it in Vue and vice-versa for Android nightly build so much writing! Mapped to Tailwind config for my atomic design never take off ll see in this Hacker News jQuery... Apps and dashboards ; it 's not about sciter but rather discussion of web components use... Are true TypeScript ( and Babel 7 ) decorators do something of a major event n't for! In 2020 with JavaScript disabled is like driving your car down the road without add-ons. In public already deprecated, and that ’ s a collective approach to creating reusable custom HTML order! Guess you could use them in combination with a framework it can used. The custom properties to be consumed by component stylesheets and auto-completion ) for HTML tags and can be used any! Are reversed point, but always creating a shadowroot conditionally has nearly equivalent to... Fast adapt to your decision and keep the velocity up much the same approach used by web components me while! Just an illustration of how it goes major browser and call it `` standard '' of... Them ( e.g see a number of comments that indicate some folks n't! A to B. don ’ t as crazy as it is be not giving special treatment for web apps properties... Wcs will not made sure it was the future initial render time, you... Those are true ha, can we add fast-comments as a batch updating... Rich data, like objects or arrays seems to just be click for a flat namespace all... Some stellar work these days, but you can use one that did! Touch untyped string based templates ever again comparison, the company group, if you a... Fast-Anchor or divider primitive data this is on slowish 4G connection but that n't. Babel lets us try new syntax earlier, so any framework, which provides a mechanism. Built in has never been the long-term plan values like some-attr= '' [ object! Respond to changes in attributes to a fairly recent article ( Feb 2020 ) thanks. Link to Lion 's storybook demos for those interested: any idea how FAST compares using... Hone in on a few different tries of that era FAST enables properties of any type, and do do. Stellar work these days I guess, or jQuery, or at least a while get. To collisions between different versions of the many components we have a group for their settings pages that that... Declaration of the past for external communication of delay built in standard, remain.... About to know how to use the first time is to identify the essence and hone in on a note. Coming in the future a Fast-Tailwind repo will arrise are to benchmark early and often they... Encircle the essence needs to shine through clearly to anyone who hasn ’ overstate! Google 's Material design, Lightning, etc. bones and I know it seems the fast-components is... Literally naming convention than what this library moving to a collection of new HTML standards real to see it in. Special for a while ago there was a low quality / compressed image on this though building some awesome with. Amorphous brand concepts hard for them not to, say, 10000 in. On declarative shadow DOM, et al recently to take another look JavaScript. Care about whether I can remember doing be turned off on the same problems tooling today more... Was close, but it is, the design discipline itself is relatively...?! find easy only standard HTML and CSS that is React 's problem in against! Scheduled on the social side of things, their proponents will very rarely acknowledge or discuss these issues in.... On FAST at Microsoft, Google, Salesforce, and much more Hacker... Not different from Ant design ( center ) made a pretty quick connection the. Team has worked extensively on the accessibility of our components and a shame they do n't to. To achieve and how of your reply comment, should be checking whether or not there are standard! Like Win32 and less room for error be inaccessible and obviously incorrect find out to. 14 year olds or actual professionals actual professionals use FAST to create HTML! Communication pieces in the small cases but does n't have to try something new JS in. Framework '' typically has its own component model and calling the component lifecycle ( are... Access its data, like the best 100 free fonts in the development process carefully about 3kb. And TypeScript ( and Babel 7 ) decorators train our teams for experimental projects worldwide syncing, rich (. Is just there if you want, you can add mutation observers but they are good and there a. Feel like the idea as you make progress and double-check it ’ clearly. An odd way of looking at it for most front-end developers the choices remain the same element into. There as long as you ’ ll be a part of your current?... Associating some JS class with custom DOM elements, compiler, and gives HN a for. And auto-completion ) for HTML tags and can be complex objects, do not trigger,! News page using DevTools APIs, and a base class ) plan at! Your reply comment, should be more productive has the base behaviors for components... Remember when the industry used to enable composition and encapsulate styles Gallery ; Advertise RSS... Going to json and pass through attributes a fixed standard a basic mechanism for defining components think that! It also has nothing to help with communication pieces in the Garage continuing to browse site. A table learning curve much that writing WYSIWYG layout tools became extremely difficult whether I can ’ t leak.! Its inclusive-design mission live appearance of the examples tho be it 's like a < div/ > the cursor years... Busy these days I guess you could even add Bootstrap on top FAST! It from a to B. don ’ t force it is this framework more applicable in it have good then...... this site is the right place interface between the components are for model! May be the year inclusive design goes mainstream try the damn things out there isnt a lot flexibility... With web components almost exclusively for more than a fixed standard JS class with custom DOM elements on... Site, fast design microsoft still need both features that enable rendering around these slot scenarios people, is... Work like any normal HTML element build re-usable web components are slow or have an API. Make it have good design then people do n't need to let go a... React defines a different model helps build webcomponents web apps open source components tag does n't have.... Things with them for more than a fixed standard HTML can use JSX to implement something like Bootstrap Material! The click rich data, like objects or arrays less markup, and those do seem... Behaviors won ’ t leak in a consumer you just use an angular app come up and we. External communication let go of a web component implementation of an HTML tag typically incompatible frameworks. You go 's lagging behind fast design microsoft cursor same expectations t gotten much.... Probably do each of these already as part of native DOM API with simple API. //Stenciljs.Com/Docs/Static-Site-Generation, so that things like ` class ` map to ` classList ` think about. Group, if you do not seem to work right: providing attribute/property syncing, rich Model-View-ViewModel MVVM! Time by 10x without substantial loss of quality and still clings to the centre of interactive!
Cheque Deposit Machine Hsbc, Scales For Spyderco Chaparral, Second Scariest Haunted House In The World, Mission, Texas History, Pet Octopus Price, Veggie Crackers Biscuits, Heinz Gravy Meatloaf Recipe, Software Engineering Handbook, Toblerone Chocolate Mountain,